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Biofuels
Author: David M. Mousdale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420051253
Pages: 424
Year: 2008-06-04
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Evaluating a wealth of quantitative data, Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry, and Sustainable Development discusses different types of biofuels, the science behind their production, the economics of their introduction to the marketplace, their environmental impacts, and their implications for world agriculture. It broadens the discussion on biofuels beyond bioethanol and biodiesel, taking into account the data, ideas, and bioproducts that have appeared over the last 50 years. An Insider’s Look at the Biotech Industry Written by a seasoned expert in the biotech industry, the book analyzes in detail the present status and future prospects of biofuels, from ethanol and biodiesel to biotechnological routes to biohydrogen. It emphasizes the ways biotechnology can improve process economics as well as facilitate sustainable agroindustries and crucial elements of a biobased economy. The author also explores the additional innovations required in microbial and plant biotechnology, metabolic engineering, bioreactor design, and the genetic manipulation of novel biomass species of plants, such as softwoods and algae. The Role of Biofuels in the Future With over 1,000 references and nearly 200 graphs and tables of data, this well-researched, comprehensive work examines the past and present of various biofuels while considering the future of a biocommodity economy.
Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States
Author: Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309260329
Pages: 231
Year: 2012-12-18
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Biofuels made from algae are gaining attention as a domestic source of renewable fuel. However, with current technologies, scaling up production of algal biofuels to meet even 5 percent of U.S. transportation fuel needs could create unsustainable demands for energy, water, and nutrient resources. Continued research and development could yield innovations to address these challenges, but determining if algal biofuel is a viable fuel alternative will involve comparing the environmental, economic and social impacts of algal biofuel production and use to those associated with petroleum-based fuels and other fuel sources. Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels was produced at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants
Author: Chittaranjan Kole, Chandrashekhar P. Joshi, David R. Shonnard
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439816859
Pages: 874
Year: 2012-03-22
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As the world’s population is projected to reach 10 billion or more by 2100, devastating fossil fuel shortages loom in the future unless more renewable alternatives to energy are developed. Bioenergy, in the form of cellulosic biomass, starch, sugar, and oils from crop plants, has emerged as one of the cheaper, cleaner, and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional forms of energy. Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants brings together the work of a panel of global experts who survey the possibilities and challenges involved in biofuel production in the twenty-first century. Section One explores the genetic improvement of bioenergy crops, ecological issues and biodiversity, feedstock logistics and enzymatic cell wall degradation to produce biofuels, and process technologies of liquid transportation fuels production. It also reviews international standards for fuel quality, unique issues of biofuel-powered engines, life-cycle environmental impacts of biofuels compared with fossil fuels, and social concerns. Section Two examines commercialized bioenergy crops, including cassava, Jatropha, forest trees, maize, oil palm, oilseed Brassicas, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, and switchgrass. Section Three profiles emerging crops such as Brachypodium, diesel trees, minor oilseeds, lower plants, Paulownia, shrub willow, sugarbeet, sunflower, and sweet potato. It also discusses unconventional biomass resources such as vegetable oils, organic waste, and municipal sludge. Highlighting the special requirements, major achievements, and unresolved concerns in bioenergy production from crop plants, the book is destined to lead to future discoveries related to the use of plants for bioenergy production. It will assist in developing innovative ways of ameliorating energy problems on the horizon.
Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States
Author: Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309260329
Pages: 231
Year: 2012-12-18
View: 885
Read: 223
Biofuels made from algae are gaining attention as a domestic source of renewable fuel. However, with current technologies, scaling up production of algal biofuels to meet even 5 percent of U.S. transportation fuel needs could create unsustainable demands for energy, water, and nutrient resources. Continued research and development could yield innovations to address these challenges, but determining if algal biofuel is a viable fuel alternative will involve comparing the environmental, economic and social impacts of algal biofuel production and use to those associated with petroleum-based fuels and other fuel sources. Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels was produced at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy.
Development Outreach
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Year: 2007
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Introduction to Biofuels
Author: David M. Mousdale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143981208X
Pages: 455
Year: 2010-07-29
View: 337
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What role will biofuels play in the scientific portfolio that might bring energy independence and security, revitalize rural infrastructures, and wean us off of our addiction to oil? The shifting energy landscape of the 21st century, with its increased demand for renewable energy technology, poses a worrying challenge. Discussing the multidisciplinary study of bioenergy and its potential for replacing fossil fuels in the coming decades, Introduction to Biofuels provides a roadmap for understanding the broad sweep of technological, sociological, and energy policy issues that intermingle and intertwine. Copiously illustrated and with numerous examples, this book explores key technologies, including biotechnology, bioprocessing, and genetic reprogramming of microorganisms. The author examines the future of biofuels from a broader perspective, addressing the economic, social, and environmental issues crucial for studying the sustainable development of bioenergy. Each chapter begins with questions and provides the answers later in the chapter as key informational points. Embedded Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) sections provide detailed derivations and equations for a subset of topics that can be found easily as buzzwords in popular media and on web sites. Together, the STEM topics form a thread of essential technologies and a guide to how researchers have established quantitative parameters that are crucial to the ever-growing biofuels database. With so much information scattered throughout the literature, it is often difficult to make sense of what is real and what is an optimistic selling of ideas with no scientific credibility. This book does an excellent job of filtering through volumes of data, providing a historical perspective on which to anchor the information, and outlining the strengths and constraints of the different biofuels.
Nuclear Renaissance
Author: William J. Nuttall
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420033778
Pages: 336
Year: 2004-12-31
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With growing concerns over environmental issues and global energy consumption, there is increasing interest in nuclear power generation, despite its diminished role in the West over the last few decades. Many of those involved with nuclear power and environmental agencies see controlled expansion of nuclear plants as the most environmentally friendly way of meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear Renaissance: Technologies and Policies for the Future of Nuclear Power examines the future of nuclear power in the contexts of economics, environmental sustainability, and security of electricity supplies. A range of future technologies is considered, illustrating the technical challenges and opportunities facing nuclear power. This semi-technical overview of modern technologies meets the growing interest from scientists, environmentalists, and governments in the potential expansion of nuclear power. Various countries are starting to announce plans for new nuclear plants, either to replace those being decommissioned or to provide additional power. Many commentators regard this renaissance as just beginning. Nuclear Renaissance: Technologies and Policies for the Future of Nuclear Power is essential reading for physicists, engineers, policy-makers, researchers, energy analysts and graduate students in energy sciences, engineering and public policy.
Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States
Author: Committee on Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States, Water Science and Technology Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030911361X
Pages: 88
Year: 2008-01-09
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National interests in greater energy independence, concurrent with favorable market forces, have driven increased production of corn-based ethanol in the United States and research into the next generation of biofuels. The trend is changing the national agricultural landscape and has raised concerns about potential impacts on the nation's water resources. To help illuminate these issues, the National Research Council held a colloquium on July 12, 2007 in Washington, DC. Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States, based in part on discussions at the colloquium, concludes that if projected future increases in use of corn for ethanol production do occur, the increase in harm to water quality could be considerable from the increases in fertilizer use, pesticide use, and soil erosion associated with growing crops such as corn. Water supply problems could also develop, both from the water needed to grow biofuels crops and water used at ethanol processing plants, especially in regions where water supplies are already overdrawn. The production of "cellulosic ethanol," derived from fibrous material such as wheat straw, native grasses, and forest trimmings is expected to have less water quality impact but cannot yet be produced on a commerical scale. To move toward a goal of reducing water impacts of biofuels, a policy bridge will likely be needed to encourage growth of new technologies, best agricultural practies, and the development of traditional and cellulosic crops that require less water and fertilizer and are optimized for fuel production.
Biofuel Technologies
Author: Vijai Kumar Gupta, Maria G. Tuohy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642345190
Pages: 534
Year: 2013-01-26
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Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.
Process Synthesis for Fuel Ethanol Production
Author: C.A. Cardona, O.J. Sanchez, L.F. Gutierrez
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439815984
Pages: 415
Year: 2009-12-03
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Process engineering can potentially provide the means to develop economically viable and environmentally friendly technologies for the production of fuel ethanol. Focusing on a key tool of process engineering, Process Synthesis for Fuel Ethanol Production is a comprehensive guide to the design and analysis of the most advanced technologies for fuel ethanol production from feedstocks. It describes how process systems engineering can be applied to fuel ethanol production to achieve new levels of efficiency according to technical, economic, and environmental criteria. Drawing on the authors’ more than 15 years of process engineering and ethanol research, the book first focuses on liquid biofuels, before examining the role of process synthesis in the rapid and high-tech analysis and design of complex biotechnological processes. It then describes various types of feedstocks, including sugars, starchy crops, lignocellulosic biomass, and microorganisms, as well as hydrolysis technologies, such as saccharification. The authors cover the fuel ethanol production technologies for different feedstocks, the new technological innovations based on process integration to reduce energy consumption, and the environmental issues of bioethanol production. They also discuss the technological configurations for fuel ethanol production in the industry and the possible factors affecting food security with fuel ethanol production and consumption. Supported by case studies that include calculations and discussions of results, this book uses a process engineering approach to explore the analysis and development of fuel ethanol production from different feedstocks. It shows how accurate analysis and precise design, along with responsible government policies, can lead to fair and sustainable development of energy crops worldwide.
Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture
Author: David D. Songstad, Jerry L. Hatfield, Dwight T. Tomes
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642552625
Pages: 384
Year: 2014-11-05
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This volume examines the interrelated fields of food security, energy security and sustainable agriculture as the key to a stable global agricultural platform and is arranged in six parts. The first part is focused on policy considerations relating to food and energy security and sustainable agriculture. The authors from this part include Former Under Secretary of Agriculture Gale Buchanan, Former Under Secretary of Energy Raymond Orbach (Chapter 1), Stephen Hughes, Bryan Moser and William Gibbons (Chapter 2) and Thomas Redick (Chapter 3). Part II addresses soil and water, which are two of the key components in secure and sustainable food production. Authors from this part are Jerry Hatfield (Chapter 4) and Mahbub Alam, Sharon Megdal et al. (Chapter 5). The third part covers sustainable and secure food production specifically addressing genetically modified traits in Chapter 6 (James McWilliams) and omega-3 fatty acids in Chapter 7 (Jay Whelan et al.). Agronomic implications relative to food security and sustainable agriculture are described in Part IV. Authors include Ravi Sripada, Pradip Das et al. (Chapter 8), Duska Stojsin, Kevin Matson and Richard Leitz (Chapter 9) and S.H. Lee, David Clay and Sharon Clay (Chapter 10). International sustainable agriculture and food security is addressed in Part V with authors Jeff Vitale and John Greenplate (Chapter 11), Julie Borlaug et al. (Chapter 12) and Sylvester Oikeh et al. (Chapter 13). The final part covers the use of chemicals in sustainable agriculture and food/energy security with Leonard Gianessi and Ashley Williams communicating the role of herbicides and Harold Reetz emphasizing the importance of fertilizers both in maximizing crop yields to maintain a sustainable secure source for food production.
Biofuels and Sustainability
Author: Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Hideaki Shiroyama, Osamu Saito, Masahiro Matsuura
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431548955
Pages: 265
Year: 2018-07-13
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This open access book presents a comprehensive analysis of biofuel use strategies from an interdisciplinary perspective using sustainability science. This interdisciplinary perspective (social science-natural science) means that the strategies and policy options proposed will have significant impacts on the economy and society alike. Biofuels are expected to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, revitalizing economies in agricultural communities and alleviating poverty. However, despite these anticipated benefits, international organizations such as the FAO, OECD and UN have published reports expressing concerns that biofuel promotion may lead to deforestation, water pollution and water shortages. The impacts of biofuel use are extensive, cross-sectoral and complex, and as such, comprehensive analyses are required in order to assess the extent to which biofuels can contribute to sustainable societies. Applying interdisciplinary sustainability science concepts and methodologies, the book helps to enhance the establishment of a sustainable society as well as the development of appropriate responses to a global need for urgent action on current issues related to biofuels.
Asperger Syndrome, the Universe and Everything
Author: Kenneth Hall
Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Pub
ISBN: 1853029300
Pages: 109
Year: 2001
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Kenneth Hall was diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome at the age of eight. Here he describes some of the inner experiences and perceptions of autism in childhood. He has a warm and positive attitude which other children will find inspiring. Insights, struggles and joys are recounted vividly in a frank and humorous way.
Synthetic Biology
Author: Markus Schmidt
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527659277
Pages: 266
Year: 2012-05-14
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This is the only book to focus on industrial and environmental applications of synthetic biology, covering 17 of the most promising uses in the areas of biofuel, bioremediation and biomaterials. The contributions are written by experts from academia, non-profit organizations and industry, outlining not only the scientific basics but also the economic, environmental and ethical impact of the new technologies. This makes it not only suitable as supplementary material for students but also the perfect companion for policy makers and funding agencies, if they are to make informed decisions about synthetic biology. Largely coordinated by Markus Schmidt, a policy adviser, and the only European to testify in front of the bioethics commission of the Obama administration.