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High Temperature Processing of Milk and Milk Products
Author: Hilton C. Deeth, Michael J. Lewis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118460480
Pages: 584
Year: 2017-03-14
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This book covers many aspects of thermal processing of milk and milk products with particular focus on UHT processing. It commences with an overview of the major thermal processing technologies: thermisation, pasteurisation, extended-shelf-life (ESL), UHT and in-container sterilisation. It discusses the principles of the technologies, the processing and packaging equipment used, processing issues such as temperature-time profiles, heat stability, fouling and cleaning, and the quality and safety aspects of the products produced. It provides a balance of the engineering aspects of the processes and the chemical, microbiological and sensory aspects of the products. The changes that occur in products during processing and storage, and the related defects which can arise, are central to the book. The discussions of these changes will be an aid to industry personnel in identifying the causes of quality defects in these products and devising measures which can be taken to eliminate or minimise the defects.
Fouling of Heat Exchangers
Author: T.R. Bott
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080531903
Pages: 546
Year: 1995-04-13
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This unique and comprehensive text considers all aspects of heat exchanger fouling from the basic science of how surfaces become fouled to very practical ways of mitigating the problem and from mathematical modelling of different fouling mechanisms to practical methods of heat exchanger cleaning. The problems that restrict the efficient operation of equipment are described and the costs, some of them hidden costs, that are associated with the fouling of heat exchangers are discussed. Some simple concepts and models of the fouling processes are presented as part of the introduction to the subject. Advice on the selection, design, installation and commissioning of heat exchangers to minimise fouling is given. A large part of the text is devoted to the use of chemical and other additives to reduce or eliminate the problem of fouling. Another large section is designed to give information on both on-line and off-line cleaning of heat exchangers. One of the difficulties faced by designers and operators of heat exchangers is anticipating the likely extent of fouling problems to be encountered with different flow streams. Another large section addresses the question and describes methods that have been used in attempting to define fouling potential. The book concludes with a chapter on how fouling information can be obtained using plant data, field tests and laboratory studies.
Energy, Waste and the Environment
Author: R. Gieré, Peter Stille
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 186239167X
Pages: 670
Year: 2004-01-01
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Compact Heat Exchangers for Energy Transfer Intensification
Author: Jiri Jaromir Klemes, Olga Arsenyeva, Petro Kapustenko, Leonid Tovazhnyanskyy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148223260X
Pages: 354
Year: 2015-08-18
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Compact Heat Exchangers for Energy Transfer Intensification: Low-Grade Heat and Fouling Mitigation provides theoretical and experimental background on heat transfer intensification in modern heat exchangers. Emphasizing applications in complex heat recovery systems for the process industries, this book: Covers various issues related to low-grade heat, including waste heat from industry and buildings, storage and transport of thermal energy, and heat transfer equipment requirements Explains the basic principles, terminology, and heat transfer aspects of compactness, as well as the concept of intensified heat area targets at process integration Pays special attention to the mitigation of fouling in heat exchangers and their systems, describing fouling deposition and threshold fouling mechanisms Delivers a thoughtful analysis of the economics of implementation, considering energy–capital trade-off, capital cost estimation, and energy prices Presents illustrative case studies of specific applications in food and chemical production plants Compact Heat Exchangers for Energy Transfer Intensification: Low-Grade Heat and Fouling Mitigation not only highlights key developments in compact heat exchangers, but also instills a practical knowledge of the latest process integration and heat transfer enhancement methodologies.
Microreactors in Preparative Chemistry
Author: Wladimir Reschetilowski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527652914
Pages: 352
Year: 2013-09-13
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This is the first book in the field to focus on these aspects, providing extremely valuable information unavailable elsewhere for anyone seeking the practical application of microreactor technology in preparative chemistry. The topics covered branch out in three different directions. To begin with, the knowledge necessary for the preparative chemistry concerning the influence of the so-called microeffects on the reaction procedure and on mass and heat transfer as well as the surface phenomena are provided in detail. Next, practical aspects of the synthesis of various basic chemicals and fine chemicals, polymers, bioproducts and nanoparticles are discussed, including important advice for both the researcher and industrial chemist. Finally, reaction examples in microreactors whose reaction guidance are best understood are given together with universally applicable correlations as well as modeling approaches and transfer potential on related reaction systems. With its specific instructions, tips and experimental procedures for product syntheses as well as the inclusion of both the technical and theoretical background this is a must-have for beginners and experts alike working in this emerging field.
Biofilm Highlights
Author: Hans-Curt Flemming, Jost Wingender, Ulrich Szewzyk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642199402
Pages: 244
Year: 2011-08-02
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Living in biofilms is the common way of life of microorganisms, transiently immobilized in their matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), interacting in many ways and using the matrix as an external digestion and protection system. This is how they have organized their life in the environment, in the medical context and in technical systems – and has helped make them the oldest, most successful and ubiquitous form of life. In this book, hot spots in current biofilm research are presented in critical and sometimes provocative chapters. This serves a twofold purpose: to provide an overview and to inspire further discussions. Above all, the book seeks to stimulate lateral thinking.
Coal and Biomass Gasification
Author: Santanu De, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, V. S. Moholkar, Bhaskar Thallada
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981107335X
Pages: 521
Year: 2017-12-13
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This book addresses the science and technology of the gasification process and the production of electricity, synthetic fuels and other useful chemicals. Pursuing a holistic approach, it covers the fundamentals of gasification and its various applications. In addition to discussing recent advances and outlining future directions, it covers advanced topics such as underground coal gasification and chemical looping combustion, and describes the state-of-the-art experimental techniques, modeling and numerical simulations, environmentally friendly approaches, and technological challenges involved. Written in an easy-to-understand format with a comprehensive glossary and bibliography, the book offers an ideal reference guide to coal and biomass gasification for beginners, engineers and researchers involved in designing or operating gasification plants.
Water, Energy & Food Sustainability in the Middle East
Author: Sohail Murad, Elias Baydoun, Nuhad Daghir
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319489208
Pages: 440
Year: 2017-03-31
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This book provides a survey of technologies available to tackle the problems associated with climate change in the energy, water and food security nexus with a special focus on the Middle East. It is divided into three main sections. The energy Section consists of six chapters, the water section of seven chapters and finally the food security section has six chapters. The individual chapters are authored by experts and provide discussions and in-depth views on the current status of each topic.
Waste Production and Utilization in the Metal Extraction Industry
Author: Sehliselo Ndlovu, Geoffrey S. Simate, Elias Matinde
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498767303
Pages: 530
Year: 2017-06-27
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Increasingly stringent environmental regulations and industry adoption of waste minimization guidelines have thus, stimulated the need for the development of recycling and reuse options for metal related waste. This book, therefore, gives an overview of the waste generation, recycle and reuse along the mining, beneficiation, extraction, manufacturing and post-consumer value chain. This book reviews current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste and also details the policy and legislation regarding the waste management, health and environmental impacts in the mining, beneficiation, metal extraction and manufacturing processes. This book is a useful reference for engineers and researchers in industry, policymakers and legislators in governance, and academics on the current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste. Some of the key features of the book are as follows: Holistic approach to waste generation, recycling and reuse along the minerals and metals extraction. Detailed overview of metallurgical waste generation. Practical examples with complete flow sheets, techniques and interventions on waste management. Integrates the technical issues related to efficient resources utilization with the policy and regulatory framework. Novel approach to addressing future commodity shortages.
Handbook of Process Integration (PI)
Author: Jiří J Klemeš
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857097253
Pages: 1184
Year: 2013-07-31
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Since its first development in the 1970s, Process Integration (PI) has become an important methodology in achieving more energy efficient processes. This pioneering handbook brings together the leading scientists and researchers currently contributing to PI development, pooling their expertise and specialist knowledge to provide readers with a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest PI research and applications. After an introduction to the principles of PI, the book reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems. The book considers Heat Integration, Mass Integration and Extended PI as well as a series of applications and case studies. Chapters address not just operating and capital costs but also equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Handbook of Process Integration (PI) is a standard reference work for managers and researchers in all energy-intensive industries, as well as academics with an interest in them, including those designing and managing oil refineries, petrochemical and power plants, as well as paper/pulp, steel, waste, food and drink processors. This pioneering handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the latest process integration research and applications Reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems Chapters also address equipment design and operability issues, through to buildings and supply chains
Integration of Information for Environmental Security
Author: H. Gonca Coskun, H. Kerem Cigizoglu, M. Derya Maktav
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402065744
Pages: 484
Year: 2008-10-28
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Water management and disasters, including droughts and floods are becoming very important subjects in the international platforms. This book will provide information about high technology techniques to solve important problems using remote sensing and GIS for topics such as the environmental security, water resources management, disaster forecast and prevention and information security.
The Shell Bitumen Handbook
Author: John Read, David Whiteoak
Publisher: Thomas Telford
ISBN: 072773220X
Pages: 460
Year: 2003-01-01
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"This respected Handbook has earned its reputation as the authoritative source of information on bitumens used in road pavements and other surfacing applications. The Handbook covers every aspect of bitumen, from its manufacture, storage and handling to sp"
Handbook of Petroleum Processing
Author: David S. J. Jones, Peter R. Pujadó
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402028199
Pages: 1353
Year: 2006-01-11
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This handbook describes and discusses the features that make up the petroleum refining industry. It begins with a description of the crude oils and their nature, and continues with the saleable products from the refining processes, with a review of the environmental impact. There is a complete overview of the processes that make up the refinery with a brief history of those processes. It also describes design technique, operation, and, in the case of catalytic units, the chemistry of the reaction routes. These discussions are supported by calculation procedures and examples, sufficient to enable input to modern computer simulation packages.
Technological Developments in Education and Automation
Author: Magued Iskander, Vikram Kapila, Mohammad A. Karim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048136563
Pages: 563
Year: 2010-01-30
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Technological Developments in Education and Automation includes set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts dealing with the increasing role of technology in daily lives including education and industrial automation Technological Developments in Education and Automation contains papers presented at the International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation and the International Conference on Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning which were part of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information and Systems Sciences and Engineering
Algal Biorefinery: An Integrated Approach
Author: Debabrata Das
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319228137
Pages: 467
Year: 2015-11-30
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This book critically discusses different aspects of algal production systems and several of the drawbacks related to microalgal biomass production, namely, low biomass yield, and energy-consuming harvesting, dewatering, drying and extraction processes. These provide a background to the state-of-the-art technologies for algal cultivation, CO2 sequestration, and large-scale application of these systems. In order to tap the commercial potential of algae, a biorefinery concept has been proposed that could help to extract maximum benefits from algal biomass. This refinery concept promotes the harvesting of multiple products from the feedstock so as to make the process economically attractive. For the last few decades, algal biomass has been explored for use in various products such as fuel, agricultural crops, pigments and pharmaceuticals, as well as in bioremediation. To meet the huge demand, there has been a focus on large-scale production of algal biomass in closed or open photobioreactors. Different nutritional conditions for algal growth have been explored, such as photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic and oleaginous. This book is aimed at a wide audience, including undergraduates, postgraduates, academics, energy researchers, scientists in industry, energy specialists, policy makers and others who wish to understand algal biorefineries and also keep abreast of the latest developments.