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Intestinal Microbiota in Health and Disease
Author: Eduardo J. Schiffrin, Philippe Marteau, Dominique Brassart
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482226766
Pages: 344
Year: 2014-02-11
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Now considered an organ with defensive and metabolic capabilities, the intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the local host immune system development and education. It contributes to the generation of a homeostatic balance characterized by the capacity to react against pathogens while remaining hyperresponsive/tolerant against commensals. This homeostatic response depends on bacteria and bacterial product sensing by innate immune cells and their molecular asset at the intestinal mucosa. This book captures the enormous progress that has been accomplished in this field in recent years.
Bugs as Drugs
Author: Robert A. Britton, Patrice D. Cani
Publisher:
ISBN: 1555819699
Pages: 514
Year: 2018
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Examining the enormous potential of microbiome manipulation to improve health Associations between the composition of the intestinal microbiome and many human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and cancer, have been elegantly described in the past decade. Now, whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, and precision gene-editing techniques are being combined with centuries-old therapies, such as fecal microbiota transplantation, to translate current research into new diagnostics and therapeutics to treat complex diseases. Bugs as Drugs provides a much-needed overview of microbes in therapies and will serve as an excellent resource for scientists and clinicians as they carry out research and clinical studies on investigating the roles the microbiota plays in health and disease. In Bugs as Drugs, editors Robert A. Britton and Patrice D. Cani have assembled a fascinating collection of reviews that chart the history, current efforts, and future prospects of using microorganisms to fight disease and improve health. Sections cover traditional uses of probiotics, next-generation microbial therapeutics, controlling infectious diseases, and indirect strategies for manipulating the host microbiome. Topics presented include: How well-established probiotics support and improve host health by improving the composition of the intestinal microbiota of the host and by modulating the host immune response. The use of gene editing and recombinant DNA techniques to create tailored probiotics and to characterize next-generation beneficial microbes. For example, engineering that improves the anti-inflammatory profile of probiotics can reduce the number of colonic polyps formed, and lactobacilli can be transformed into targeted delivery systems carrying therapeutic proteins or bioengineered bacteriophage. The association of specific microbiota composition with colorectal cancer, liver diseases, osteoporosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The gut microbiota has been proposed to serve as an organ involved in regulation of inflammation, immune function, and energy homeostasis. Fecal microbiota transplantation as a promising treatment for numerous diseases beyond C. difficile infection. Practical considerations for using fecal microbiota transplantation are provided, while it is acknowledged that more high-quality evidence is needed to ascertain the importance of strain specificity in positive treatment outcomes. Because systems biology approaches and synthetic engineering of microbes are now high-throughput and cost-effective, a much wider range of therapeutic possibilities can be explored and vetted.
Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease
Author: Mark Lyte, John F. Cryan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493908979
Pages: 436
Year: 2014-07-05
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The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​
The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health
Author: Food Forum, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030926586X
Pages: 161
Year: 2013-02-27
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The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.
Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention
Author: Juana Frías, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Elena Peñas
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025492
Pages: 762
Year: 2016-09-12
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Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention is the first scientific reference that addresses the properties of fermented foods in nutrition by examining their underlying microbiology, the specific characteristics of a wide variety of fermented foods, and their effects in health and disease. The current awareness of the link between diet and health drives growth in the industry, opening new commercial opportunities. Coverage in the book includes the role of microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation of bioactive and potentially toxic compounds, their contribution to health-promoting properties, and the safety of traditional fermented foods. Authored by worldwide scientists and researchers, this book provides the food industry with new insights on the development of value-added fermented foods products, while also presenting nutritionists and dieticians with a useful resource to help them develop strategies to assist in the prevention of disease or to slow its onset and severity. Provides a comprehensive review on current findings in the functional properties and safety of traditional fermented foods and their impact on health and disease prevention Identifies bioactive microorganisms and components in traditional fermented food Includes focused key facts, helpful glossaries, and summary points for each chapter Presents food processors and product developers with opportunities for the development of fermented food products Helps readers develop strategies that will assist in preventing or slowing disease onset and severity
The Human Microbiota
Author: David N. Fredricks
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118409809
Pages: 376
Year: 2013-02-22
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The Human Microbiota offers a comprehensive review of all human-associated microbial niches in a single volume, focusing on what modern tools in molecular microbiology are revealing about human microbiota, and how specific microbial communities can be associated with either beneficial effects or diseases. An excellent resource for microbiologists, physicians, infectious disease specialists, and others in the field, the book describes the latest research findings and evaluates the most innovative research approaches and technologies. Perspectives from pioneers in human microbial ecology are provided throughout.
Low-dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future
Author: Robert Paul Hunter, Carlos F Amábile-Cuevas, Jun Lin, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Rustam Aminov
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889193551
Pages:
Year: 2014-12-01
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Antimicrobial therapy is a key factor in our success against pathogens poised to ravage at risk or infected individuals. However, we are currently at a watershed point as we face a growing crisis of antibiotic resistance among diverse pathogens. One area of intense interest is the impact of the application of antibiotics for uses other than the treatment of patients and the association with such utilization with emerging drug resistance. This Research Topic “Low- dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future” in Frontiers in Microbiology: Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy details various aspects of the wide ranging effects of antimicrobial therapy from areas such as the regulation of host responses to modulation of bacterial virulence factors to acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes.
Human Microbiota in Health and Disease
Author: Bryan Tungland
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128146508
Pages: 680
Year: 2018-05-25
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Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapy is a comprehensive discussion on all the aspects associated with the early colonization of gut microbiota, its development and maintenance, and its symbiotic relationship with the host in promoting health. Chapters illustrate the complex mechanisms and metabolic signaling pathways related to how the gut microbiota maintain proper regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis and immune response, all while mediating inflammatory processes involved in the etiology of many chronic disease conditions. With today's common use of pharmaceutical medicine in treating symptoms and frequent overuse of antibiotics in chronic disease within mainstream medical practice, our understanding of the etiological mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced chronic disease and natural approaches to prevention and potential cures for these diseases is of vital importance to overall human health. Details the complex relationship between human microbiota in the gut, oral cavity and skin as well as their colonization, development and impact of factors that influence the relationship Illustrates the mechanisms associated with dysbiosis-associated inflammation and its role in the onset and progression in chronic disease Provides the primary mechanisms and comprehensive scientific evidence for the use of dietary modification and pro- and prebiotics in preventing chronic disease
Grain Brain
Author: David Perlmutter
Publisher: Little, Brown
ISBN: 0316234826
Pages: 336
Year: 2013-09-17
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#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The devastating truth about the effects of wheat, sugar, and carbs on the brain, with a 4-week plan to achieve optimum health. In Grain Brain, renowned neurologist David Perlmutter, MD, exposes a finding that's been buried in the medical literature for far too long: carbs are destroying your brain. Even so-called healthy carbs like whole grains can cause dementia, ADHD, epilepsy, anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, decreased libido, and much more. Groundbreaking and timely, Grain Brain shows that the fate of your brain is not in your genes. It's in the food you eat. The cornerstone of all degenerative conditions, including brain disorders, is inflammation, which can be triggered by carbs, especially containing gluten or high in sugar. Dr. Perlmutter explains what happens when the brain encounters common ingredients in your daily bread and fruit bowls, how statin drugs may be erasing your memory, why a diet high in "good fats" is ideal, and how to spur the growth of new brain cells at any age. Dr. Perlmutter's revolutionary 4-week plan shows you how to keep your brain healthy, vibrant, and sharp while dramatically reducing your risk for debilitating neurological diseases as well as relieving more common, everyday conditions -- without drugs. Easy-to-follow strategies, delicious recipes, and weekly goals help you to put the plan into action. With a blend of anecdotes, cutting-edge research, and accessible, practical advice, Grain Brain teaches you how to take control of your "smart genes," regain wellness, and enjoy lifelong health and vitality.
The Gut-Brain Axis
Author: Niall Hyland, Catherine Stanton
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025441
Pages: 508
Year: 2016-05-13
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The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior
Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics
Author: Ronald Ross Watson, Victor R. Preedy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128023716
Pages: 938
Year: 2015-09-23
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Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion reviews and presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics to prevent disease and improve the health of various populations. Experts define and support the actions of bacteria; bacteria modified bioflavonoids and prebiotic fibrous materials and vegetable compounds. A major emphasis is placed on the health-promoting activities and bioactive components of probiotic bacteria. Offers a novel focus on synbiotics, carefully designed prebiotics probiotics combinations to help design functional food and nutraceutical products Discusses how prebiotics and probiotics are complementary and can be incorporated into food products and used as alternative medicines Defines the variety of applications of probiotics in health and disease resistance and provides key insights into how gut flora are modified by specific food materials Includes valuable information on how prebiotics are important sources of micro-and macronutrients that modify body functions
The New Science of Metagenomics:
Author: Committee on Metagenomics: Challenges and Functional Applications, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309106761
Pages: 170
Year: 2007-05-24
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Although we can't usually see them, microbes are essential for every part of human life -- indeed all life on Earth. The emerging field of metagenomics offers a new way of exploring the microbial world that will transform modern microbiology and lead to practical applications in medicine, agriculture, alternative energy, environmental remediation, and many others areas. Metagenomics allows researchers to look at the genomes of all of the microbes in an environment at once, providing a "meta" view of the whole microbial community and the complex interactions within it. It's a quantum leap beyond traditional research techniques that rely on studying -- one at a time -- the few microbes that can be grown in the laboratory. At the request of the National Science Foundation, five Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council organized a committee to address the current state of metagenomics and identify obstacles current researchers are facing in order to determine how to best support the field and encourage its success. The New Science of Metagenomics recommends the establishment of a "Global Metagenomics Initiative" comprising a small number of large-scale metagenomics projects as well as many medium- and small-scale projects to advance the technology and develop the standard practices needed to advance the field. The report also addresses database needs, methodological challenges, and the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in supporting this new field.
The Human Microbiome
Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128137150
Pages: 102
Year: 2017-11-17
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Methods in Microbiology, Volume 44 presents the latest volume in the most prestigious series devoted to techniques and methodology in the field, with updated chapters that cover Metabolomics and the vaginal microbial ecosystem and health, Esophageal microbiome, Bioinformatics methods, Evolution of biomolecules, genomes and communities, and Gut microbial metabolism or the acquisition of the gut microbiome. Established for over 30 years, this comprehensive series provides ready-to-use recipes, the latest emerging techniques, and novel approaches on tried, tested and established methods. Written by recognized leaders and experts in the field Provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge review of current and emerging technologies in the field of clinical microbiology Presents discussions on newly emerging technologies
Microbial Inhabitants of Humans
Author: Michael Wilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521841585
Pages: 455
Year: 2005
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This advanced textbook provides a unique overview of the microbial communities (normal indigenous microbiota) inhabiting those regions of the human body that are exposed to the external environment, including the skin, eyes, oral cavity and the respiratory, urinary, reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts. In order to understand why particular organisms are able to colonise an anatomical region and why the resulting microbial community has a particular composition, an ecological approach is essential. Consequently, the key anatomical and physiological characteristics of each body site are described throughout the book. The crucial roles of the indigenous microbiota in protecting against exogenous pathogens, regulating the development of our immune system and mucosae, and providing nutrients are also discussed. The involvement of these organisms in infections of healthy and debilitated individuals are discussed throughout and methods of manipulating the composition of the indigenous microbiota for the benefit of human health are also described.
Born to Eat
Author: Wendy Jo Peterson, Leslie Schilling
Publisher: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
ISBN: 1510720014
Pages: 258
Year: 2017-05-16
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For thousands of years, humans have thrived without “baby food” (which was invented in the late nineteenth century). Think about it: the human race has made it this far largely on whole food. Only in recent decades have we begun overthinking and over-processing our foods, which has led to chronic dieting, chronic disease, disordered eating, body distrust, and epidemic confusion about the best way to feed ourselves and families. Eating is an innate skill that has been overcomplicated by marketing schemes and a dieting culture. It’s time to leave the dieting culture behind for the whole family. It starts with the baby’s first bite! We are all Born to Eat and it seems only natural for us to start at the beginning—with our babies. When babies show signs of readiness for solid foods, they can eat almost everything the family eats and become healthy, happy eaters in the process. By honoring self-regulation (also an innate skill) and focusing on a whole food foundation, we can foster healthier children, parents, and families. You don’t have to cook another entire meal to feed just baby, nor blend everything you eat into a puree to support healthy growth in an infant. With a little patience, presence, and skill, you can transform nearly any family meal into a baby-friendly food. Who knew a little planning could have the whole family eating together, and better? Aside from the United States, most countries are accepting of babies starting of solids with the foods of the family. With a focus on self-feeding and a baby-led weaning approach, nutritionists and wellness experts Wendy Jo Peterson and Leslie Schilling provide age-based advice, step-by-step instructions, help for parents, and easy recipes so you can ensure that your infant is introduced to healthy and tasty food as early as possible.